EBMP Publications

Ancient Buddhist Scrolls from Gandhara cover

Publications and Work in Progress

The first major publication of the EBMP was Richard Salomon’s Ancient Buddhist Scrolls from Gandhāra: The British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragments, jointly published by the British Library and University of Washington Press in 1999. This book consists of a survey, catalogue, preliminary analysis and interpretation of the British Library collection of Kharoṣṭhī manuscripts. It includes several representative text and translation samples.

Further EBMP publications are being issued as volumes in a series entitled Gandhāran Buddhist Texts (GBT), published by the University of Washington Press. This series consists of detailed studies of individuals texts in the British Library and Senior collections. The following volumes have already been published or are in the press:

  • GBT 1: Richard Salomon. A Gāndhārī Version of the Rhinoceros Sutra: British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragment 5B. 2000.
  • GBT 2: Mark Allon. Three Gāndhārī Ekottarikāgama-Type Sūtras: British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragments 12 and 14. 2001.
  • GBT 3: Timothy Lenz. A New Version of the Gāndhārī Dharmapada, and a Collection of Previous‐Birth Stories: British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragments 16+25. 2003.
  • GBT 4: Andrew Glass. Four Gāndhārī Saṃyuktāgama Sūtras: Senior Kharoṣṭhī Fragment 5. 2007.
  • GBT 5: Richard Salomon, Two Gāndhārī Manuscripts of the Songs of Lake Anavatapta (Anavatapta‐gāthā): British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragment 1 and Senior Scroll 14. 2008.
  • GBT 6: Timothy Lenz. Gandhāran Avadānas: British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragments 1–3 and 21 and Supplementary Fragments A–C. 2010.


M.A. Theses and Ph.D. Dissertations

  • Timothy Lenz. A New Version of the Gāndhārī Dharmapada: British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragments 16 + 25. Ph.D. dissertation. 1999.
  • Andrew Glass. A Preliminary Study of Kharoṣṭhī Manuscript Paleography. M.A. thesis. 2000.
  • Jason Neelis. Long‐Distance Trade and the Transmission of Buddhism through Northern Pakistan, Primarily Based on Kharoṣṭhī and Brāhmī Inscriptions. Ph.D. dissertation. 2001.
  • Andrew Glass. Connected Discourses in Gandhāra: a Study, Edition, and Translation of Four Saṃyuktāgama‐Type Sūtras from the Senior Collection.” Ph.D. dissertation. 2006.
  • Mei‐huang Lee. A Study of the Gāndhārī Dārukkhandhopamasutta (“Discourse on the Simile of the Log”). Ph.D. dissertation. 2009.
  • Stefan Baums. A Gāndhārī Commentary on Early Buddhist Verses: British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragments 7, 9, 13 and 18. Ph.D. dissertation. 2009.


Work in Progress

Future volumes of the Gandhāran Buddhist Texts series will include:

  • Mark Allon. Ancient Buddhist Scrolls from Gandhāra II: the Senior Collection.
  • Stefan Baums. Two Gāndhārī Commentaries on Early Buddhist Verses: British Library Kharoṣṭhī fragments 7, 9, 13 and 18
  • Collett Cox. A Gāndhārī Abhidharma Text: British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragment 28.
  • Jason Neelis and Timothy Lenz. Further Gandhāran Avadānas: British Library Kharoṣṭhī Fragments 4 and 12 + 14.
  • Richard Salomon, The Gāndhārī *Bahubudha-sūtra: the Library of Congress Kharoṣṭhī Scroll.


Other Studies

Editions of Gāndhārī manuscript material from other collections of Kharoṣṭhī manuscripts include:

  • Richard Salomon. “Kharoṣṭhī manuscript fragments in the Pelliot Collection, Bibliothèque nationale de France.” Bulletin d’études indiennes 16 (1998).
  • Mark Allon and Richard Salomon. “Fragments of a Gāndhārī version of the Mahāparinirvāṇa‐sūtra in the Schøyen Collection.” In: Jens Braarvig, ed., Buddhist Manuscripts, Volume I, Oslo: Hermes Publishing. 2000.

Besides the editions in the Gandhāran Buddhist Texts series, the contributors to the Early Buddhist Manuscripts Project prepare studies of particular aspects of Gāndhārī literature and language. This includes Buddhological, linguistic, lexical, and paleographic studies, as well as pedagogical aids and an anthology of representative translations. One recent publication of this kind is:

  • Richard Salomon and Stefan Baums. “Sanskrit Ikṣvāku, Pali Okkāka, and Gāndhārī Iṣmaho.” Journal of the Pali Text Society 29 (2007).